Neuromodulation cryotherapeutic devices and associated systems and methods are disclosed herein. A cryotherapeutic device configured in accordance with a particular embodiment of the present technology can include an elongated shaft having distal portion and a supply lumen along at least a portion of the shaft. The shaft can be configured to locate the distal portion intravascularly at a treatment site proximate a renal artery or renal ostium. The supply lumen can be configured to receive a liquid refrigerant. The cryotherapeutic device can further include a cooling assembly at the distal portion of the shaft. The cooling assembly can include an applicator in fluid communication with the supply lumen and configured to deliver cryotherapeutic cooling to nerves proximate the target site when the cooling assembly is in a deployed state.